Tuesday, 14 Jun, 2011 Technology
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Famous Scientists - Their Inventions and Discoveries

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This article includes a small list of some of the most popular scientists and their most remarkable inventions and discoveries. All of them had a huge impact on the world we live in today, with scientists, engineers, researchers having given everything they have to make our lives easier.

Aristotle (384-322 BC)

As a famous Greek philosopher, educator and scientist, Aristotle did a lot of writings that turned out to be the first that made a comprehensive system of Western philosophy. His works were written on a variety of topics, including morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. Aristotle was the one who updated engraving and performed a large-scale classification of plants and animals.


Archimedes of Syracuse (287 - 212 BC)

Due to the fact that Archimedes was a person with multiple interests, including math, physics, astronomy and engineering, he managed to become a successful inventor. He became famous for his innovative thinking and was the one to come up with a lot of innovative machines, including the Archimedes screw that is still used today to pump liquids, coal, grain and more. But probably his most famous discovery is the way of finding the volume of objects that have an irregular shape. It is worth mentioning that most of his works were meant to help his home city.


Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 - 1519)

Leonardo Da Vinci was a great inventor, being fond of engineering, astronomy, aeronautics, mathematics and more. His drawings include a number of various inventions, the basics of which more or less can be found in different technologies today. Da Vinci is considered to be the father of modern science. Some of his most important inventions include the hydraulic machine, the boat and design of a flying machine.


Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647)

The famous Italian physicist and mathematician is the author of the barometer (scientific tool used in the field of meteorology to estimate atmospheric pressure), built in 1643. It would be interesting to note that a number of Italian Navy submarines were named after the inventor.


Ferdinand Verbiest (1623 - 1688)

Verbiest was an astronomer and a mathematician. He was the one to invent the world's first automobile. The inventor came up with the idea to create an automobile while visiting China as a missionary. His automobile was powered by steam, but could not carry humans.


Karl Drais (1785 - 1851)

The German inventor is the author of the Laufmaschine (German for "running machine"), which was later called the velocipede and is believed to be the forerunner of the bicycle and motorcycle. His invention represented the first means of transport to use the two-wheeler principle and the starting point of the mechanized personal transport.


Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

The famous French chemist and microbiologist was the one who has come up with the process of pasteurization, a process that involves heating a food, usually liquid, to a certain temperature for a specific length of time, and then cooling it instantly. Pasteurization is used today to slow the development of microorganisms in food.


Levi Strauss (1829 - 1902)

Everyone knows that jeans were invented in the United States, some know that Levi Strauss was the author of this invention but few know that Strauss was an immigrant from Germany managed to found in San Francisco, California the world's first firm to manufacture blue jeans. The company called Levi Strauss & Co., started its operation back in 1853.


Gottlieb Daimler (1834 - 1900)

Daimler is another representative of German intelligentsia, being an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist. He was the first to develop internal-combustion engine and a pioneer in the field of automobile development. Daimler is the author of the first high-speed petrol engine and the world's first four-wheel vehicle.


Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845 - 1923)

The famous German physicist Röntgen is the one who discovered the X-rays (also known as Röntgen rays).

This invention allowed the German scientist to win the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.


Thomas Edison (1847 - 1931)

He is the author of a large number of inventions, but the most well-known one is the electric bulb. Among other discoveries of Thomas Edison there are telegraph devices, phonograph, carbon transmitter, direct current generator, universal electric motor, and more.


Emile Berliner (1851 - 1929)

The German-born Jewish American scientist became known thanks to his disc record gramophone (in the United States known as phonograph or record player). Used for recording and reproducing sounds on a gramophone record, vinyl record, the device (with certain modifications made once in a while) was popular until 1980s.


Alexander Graham Bell (1857 - 1922)

During the experiments he carried out with the telegraph, Bell came up with the idea of the telephone.

The inventor of one of the most popular devices today thought that the telephone was intruding, which is why he did not have one in his workplace.


Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (1858 - last seen alive 1913)

Being a mechanical engineer, Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel managed to discover the diesel engine.

The German inventor was also a well-known thermal engineer, a polyglot, an expert in arts, and a social theorist.


Amalie Auguste Melitta Bentz (1873 - 1950)

She was born Amalie Auguste Melitta Liebscher. Bentz was a German business lady, who invented the coffee filter back in 1908. Today her grandchildren, Thomas and Stephen, are managing the family business (Melitta Group KG) based in Minden in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia.


Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955)

One of the greatest scientists of the 20th century is the author of numerous inventions and theories that transformed a lot of concepts linked to space and time, with the most important discovery being the theory of relativity. Other discoveries of Einstein include the photoelectric effect and the Einstein calculator.


Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 - 1955)

During the World War I Fleming worked as an army medical corp.

He is the inventor of penicillin that prevented a lot of soldiers from being infected.

The discovery of penicillin managed to significantly boost the evolution of medicine industry.


Fritz Pfleumer (1881 - 1945)

The German-Austrian engineer is the author of the magnetic tape used for recording sound. Pfleumer decided to grant the right of use to the AEG, a German manufacturer of electrical equipment. The event took place on December 1, 1932. Based on Pfleumer's magnetic tape, the German firm created the world's first practical tape recorder dubbed Magnetophon K1.


Frederick Banting (1891 - 1941)

Initially Banting was dedicated to politics but later decided to shift to medicine. In 1916 he completed his MD and during the World War I worked as a doctor. He was very interested in diabetes and continuously worked on a cure for it. It would be worth noting that the Banting searcher for cure for diabetes together with Dr. Charles Best. In 1923 the researcher was awarded with the Nobel Prize for discovering insulin.


Edwin Herbert Land (1909 - 1991)

The co-founder of the Polaroid Corporation was the first who came up with low-cost filters for polarizing light (useful system of in-camera instant photography). His most popular invention, Polaroid instant camera, was officially launched in late 1948 and allowed users to take and develop a picture in just under 60 seconds.


Konrad Zuse (1910 - 1995)

Zuse was a famous German engineer and the developer of the world's first practical program-controlled Turing-complete computer dubbed Z3. The computer became operational in 1941.


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