Saturday, 30 Jul, 2011 Science

Top 10 Inventions of Ancient Egypt


The civilization of Ancient Egypt occupied the territory of eastern North Africa, along the lower reaches of the Nile River. Today this is the territory of modern Egypt. Ancient Egypt managed to succeed in numerous fields, bringing new invention some of which not only survived till nowadays, but can also be seen in use.

Mainly the great evolution of ancient Egyptian civilization is due to its ability to adjust to the somewhat harsh conditions of the Nile River Valley.

The socio-cultural development greatly evolved thanks to predictable flooding, the ability to control irrigation and development of some really important devices. Check out some of the most important inventions that appeared in ancient Egypt.


The first documentations of wigs were registered on different Egyptian artifacts as well as wall painting on ancient tombs. During hot summers a lot of Egyptians shaved their heads to keep them clean, which was much easier than cleaning them from pests.

At the same time looking bald in ancient Egypt was not considered to be aesthetically pleasing, which is why they invented wigs. Those who did not wear wigs, while remaining bald were mostly priests and laborers.

At that time wigs were not meant to replace hair. They usually consisted of various sizes of braids set with beeswax or the like, which made wigs rather stiff.

Sun clock

It is worth mentioning that in order to tell the time Egyptians invented two types of clocks - first it was the sun clock which was an obelisk that allowed Egyptians part the day into morning and afternoon.

This was made with the shadow of the obelisk that moved around the surface of the obelisk throughout the day. With its help Egyptians managed to identify the longest and shortest days of the year - they simply registered the time when the shadow of the obelisk was the longest and shortest at the noon.

Water clock

Water clock was the second type of clock invented by the Egyptians. The first physical evidence of the water clock dates back to 1417-1379 BC, when Egypt was reigned by Amenhotep III. The device was used in the Temple of Amen-Re at Karnak. But the oldest documentation was found in an inscription of a 16th century BC tomb of the Egyptian court official Amenemhet. The inscription identified him as the inventor of the water clock.

The first known Egyptian water clock represented a stone vessel that had slopping slides to allow the liquid to drip from a tiny hole found near the bottom of the device at an almost constant rate. Inside there were 12 columns with equal space between them. These columns were used to estimate the passage of hours while the level of water reached them.

Priests were the ones to use these water clocks. Their goal was to determine the right hour to perform nightly temple rites and sacrifices. It is possible that Egyptians used these water clocks during daytime too.

Surgical Instruments

The first medical document that survived till nowadays is the Edwin Smith Papyrus. It is possibly the earliest document that tries to study the brain and thus could be called the starting point of neuroscience. The Egyptians did not carry out actual surgeries, but some small surgical operations that helped them gain more surgical knowledge.

The Edwin Smith Papyrus says that Egyptians used some techniques to treat dislocated bones. It characterized 48 surgical cases of injures of the head, neck, shoulders, breast and chest. In addition, it showed the suturing of non-infected wounds using a needle and thread. The Edwin Smith Papyrus includes a list of instruments used during surgeries. The list featured lint, swabs, bandage, adhesive plaster (that took the form of letter "x"), support, surgical stitches and cauterization.

Today visitors of the Cairo museum have the possibility to observe a collection of surgical instruments used in ancient Egypt, including scalpels, scissors, copper needles, forceps, spoons, lancets, hooks, probes and pincers.

Besides, 37 surgical instruments are carved on a wall in the temple of Kom-Ombo (the house of life of the 2nd century BC).

The Pyramids

The oldest pyramid to date was erected back in 2750 BC for King Zoser, a representative of the 3rd dynasty of Egyptian kings. Prior to a pyramid tomb, the Egyptian kings were buried in rectangular mud-brick tombs dubbed Mastaba. But the architect of King Zoser, Imhotep, decided to place several mastabas of decreasing dimensions on top of each other and thus created the first pyramid on the planet.

The largest Egyptian pyramid, however, is the Great Pyramid of Giza, which for thousands of years remained the tallest architectural creation in the world until the erection of Lincoln Cathedral in 1311. The area of its base measures more than 52,600 square meters.

Papyrus Sheets

First of all it would be worthy of noting that papyrus sheet represents a paper-like material manufactured from the pith of the papyrus plant that was once one of the most popular plants growing in the Nile Delta of Egypt.

The first examples of papyrus were noticed in ancient Egypt. They were manufactured during the reign of the First dynasty. At the same time it is worth mentioning that the material was widely used across the Mediterranean region.

The Egyptians used the plant to make a writing material, as well as to create boats, mats, sandals and baskets.

The Ox-drawn Plow

This Egyptian invention was one of the most important devices that brought a revolution in the filed of Egyptian agriculture.

Its modified version can still be seen nowadays, being used by farmers of third world and developing countries who do not have the possibility to acquire machinery to plow their fields.

The invention makes use of the power of oxen to pull the plow. Thus it is much quicker and easier to loosen the soil than doing it using hands or human force to pull the plow.

Solar Calendar

A solar calendar is a type of calendar that is meant to show the position of the earth on its revolution around our sun.

Egyptians are also responsible for the appearance of the solar calendar. To make it, they took the yearly sunrise recurrence of Sirius (the Dog Star) in the eastern sky as a fixed point. Interestingly enough, this period coincided with the yearly flooding of the Nile River. Ancient Egyptians developed a calendar that featured 365 days and 12 months (30 days in each month and additional 5 days at the end of the year).

Due to the fact that Egyptians didn't manage to account the additional fraction of a day, their calendar steadily went into showing the wrong data. However, Ptolemy III Euergetes of Egypt, decided to add one day to the 365 days every 4 years.

Black Ink

In order to make the black ink, Egyptians made a mix consisting of vegetable gum, soot and bee wax. To be able to make ink of other colors they replaced soot with other organic materials such as ochre for example. The latter allowed them to make red ink.

The mixture of all the necessary ingredients proved to be quite effective. The evidence of this can be the manuscripts written in Egyptian that managed to survive till nowadays and can be fully or partially readable.

Written Language

Egyptians contributed to the evolution of paintings into the first written language. It is worth mentioning that the first writing appeared in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The writing system of the former started with pictograms which go back to 6000 BC. Pictograms represented simple illustrations of the words they represented. These images had limitations and as time went by Egyptians added more features to their writing system. For example, they added alphabet-like characters that represented specific sounds. The improved system made it possible for Egyptians to write out names and even some abstract ideas.

The famous Egyptian hieroglyphics represent a fusion of alphabetic and syllabic symbols, along with ideograms that enriched different places in Egypt, such as tombs. It would be interesting to note that ideograms are images that stand for whole words. They helped Egyptians to write about war, politics and culture.

Powered by


4 votes

//29 Oct 10, 2020 04:32 PM | posted by: humpdad
3 votes

//28 Aug 01, 2020 08:31 PM | posted by: Whitney
comment acheter du cialis sans ordonnance - tadalafil tablets
when will generic cialis be available in canada
cialis kidney infection cialis cheap cialis es mejor que levitra
5 votes

//27 Jul 04, 2020 10:16 PM | posted by: Joie
order viagra tablets - buy discount viagra
viagra tablets
online generic viagra female viagra price best erection pills
6 votes

//26 Jun 05, 2020 12:23 AM | posted by: BobbyAlkab
cialis nasonex generic cialis
cialis ophalen utrecht buy cialis online
where can i get cialis soft
5 votes

//25 Jun 04, 2020 11:45 PM | posted by: DanielAnync
college essay writer write my essay
custom essay writing company writing essays custom
essay writers needed
5 votes

//24 Jun 04, 2020 08:50 PM | posted by: BobbyAlkab
indian pharmacy canada pharmaceuticals online
online pharmacies of canada london drugs canada
drugstore online
6 votes

//23 Jun 04, 2020 04:26 PM | posted by: BobbyAlkab
lowest price cialis soft cialis 20 mg
cialis 20mg tuoteseloste cialis without a doctor prescription
online pharmacy cialis
6 votes

//22 Jun 04, 2020 04:26 PM | posted by: DanielAnync
best essay writers write my essay for me
essay writer program custom essay writing sites
famous essay writers
5 votes

//21 Jun 04, 2020 09:07 AM | posted by: DanielAnync
the best essay writers custom essays
custom essay writing company college essay
customized essays
5 votes

//20 Jun 04, 2020 01:59 AM | posted by: DanielAnync
essay writer online essay on old custom
custom essay writing cheap professional college application essay writers
write custom essays
5 votes

//19 Jun 04, 2020 12:56 AM | posted by: BobbyAlkab
effects of viagra and cialis pharmacy cialis generic online
buy brand cialis cheap cialis 20mg
compare cialis to viagra lilly icos
8 votes

//18 Jun 03, 2020 06:42 PM | posted by: DanielAnync
my essay writer magic essay writer
who can write my essay custom essay org
best custom essay
4 votes

//17 Jun 03, 2020 05:06 PM | posted by: BobbyAlkab
viagra cialis and levitra act by cialis price
generic generic cialis pills online generic online cialis
cialis dosage vs viagra
4 votes

//16 Jun 03, 2020 11:16 AM | posted by: DanielAnync
cheapest essay writers custom essays
essay writers canada write my college essay for me
essay writer software
4 votes

//15 Jun 03, 2020 09:06 AM | posted by: BobbyAlkab
buy cialis soft cod delivery cialis generic tadalafil
no presciption cialis cialis 20mg
liquid ancilliaries nolvadex liquidex cialis
6 votes

//14 Jun 03, 2020 03:58 AM | posted by: DanielAnync
college essay writers custom essay writing canada
essay on old custom custom essay org
cheapest custom essays
5 votes

//13 Jun 03, 2020 01:22 AM | posted by: BobbyAlkab
cialis eller viagra flashback tadalafil without a doctor's prescription
le quotidien en ducation sp cialis buy generic cialis
best prices for cialis
6 votes

//12 Jun 02, 2020 08:36 PM | posted by: DanielAnync
essay writers net the essay writer
cheap custom essays write my essay for me
cheap custom essay writing
4 votes

//11 Jun 02, 2020 05:20 PM | posted by: BobbyAlkab
online viagra und cialis kaufen gunstig tadalafil cialis
celebrex renova tramadol cialis generic cialis
waarom werkt cialis niet
4 votes

//10 Jun 02, 2020 01:05 PM | posted by: DanielAnync
custom essay writing sites write essays for me
cheap essay writer custom made essays
custom college essays
8 votes

//9 May 19, 2020 11:25 AM | posted by: gugu gaga
gugu gaga
10 votes

//8 Apr 24, 2020 09:28 PM | posted by: EdyPayogs
Amoxicillin Coughing Side Effect Cialis Levitra Walmart Plan Cialis Kamagra Nedir
11 votes

//7 Mar 23, 2020 07:07 AM | posted by: BennyTab
Секрет евреев: Еврейские мужчины лечат простатит за 2-3 недели!
Один раз в жизни! Раз и навсегда! Узнаем как...
13 votes

//6 Mar 21, 2020 08:46 PM | posted by: Christoper Barney
Good morning

My name is Sergey and I am a founder of Sweaty Quid Freelancer Marketplace where you can buy and offer all kinds of on-line services ranging from back links and guest post to explainer videos, infographics and blog posts for your online site.

I believe that you and could really benefit from Sweaty Quid, whether you wish to provide your services or employ the services of freelancers to aid you to grow your business.

I have been a freelancer on various marketplaces for over 5 years and have had my accounts arbitrarily shut down, my revenues pocketed and I simply had a difficult time with many low quality freelancers. After much unnecessary aggravation, I made a decision to start up my very own freelance marketplace that would do things differently and far better.

After almost one year of caffeinne powered nights, myself and my crew at Creative Bear Tech have developed Sweaty Quid from ground up. One month into our release we have managed to bring in a really good variety of top quality freelancers and an extremely high number of repeat customers. I believe this functions as a testament to our excellence.

Sweaty Quid is a spam-free and transparent market place for quality freelancers and buyers. We are rigorously banning all spammy vendors who do not pass our quality threshold and leave only the absolute best ones. Keeping up with the latest technologcal changes, we also accept cryptocurrency as one of our payment methods. Our ethos that defines us is that sometimes less is more, particularly when it comes to high quality freelancers.

We are still very new in contrast to other freelance marketplaces, but we are already punching above our weight.

I would love to welcome you personally to sign up with Sweaty Quid Freelancer Marketplace!

Kind regards

Sergey Greenfields
Founder of Sweaty Quid Freelancer Marketplace
Flat 9, 1 Jardine Rd, St Katharine's & Wapping,
London E1W 3WD, United Kingdom
10 votes

//5 Feb 22, 2020 03:58 AM | posted by: Ramiroflown
Reducing weight with a healthy diet plan could be one of the best ways you can drop a couple of kilos quick. The supplement is aimed toward serious muscle achieve athletes and fitness buffs. After sorting by way of the listing of vegan mass gainer merchandise, we have come to the conclusion that IRONVEGAN is our beneficial vegan bulking product. MHP Up Your Mass is backed by 10 years of research and product improvement, and it doesn't disappoint - its nutrient mix is designed to assist even the most weight-acquire challenged discover a technique to quickly pack on actual muscle. Muscle mass, perfect shape, aesthetic look and strength are the motivation to undertake and likewise to proceed training, particularly when the effects become visible. To tone your tummy, you want to reduce your overall BMI (or body mass index, a measurement of your physique fats based on your top and weight), and operating for weight loss is the easiest way to do so. Indian Meal plan to drop a few pounds quick. With so many good tasting foods out there, it might probably show to be quite a challenge to decide on the correct healthy ones that can profit you essentially the most. When we acquire muscle measurement and strength via retraining (coaching after a interval of detraining), we typically obtain these beneficial properties at a much sooner fee than in the course of the authentic training interval. The only reply to this question could be No", as a result of if you understand how the human body works, you would know that a mean person can grow his muscle tissues really big if he would simply prepare onerous and eat the right kinds of meals (food with the right amount of protein, fat, and carbohydrates), even without taking muscle supplements. A stable start line can be to follow the advisable serving measurement in your weight gainer packaging. Idea of Vegan weight reduction is a type of Vegan weight loss program that may consequence to weight reduction; from the fact that they only eat plant-primarily based foods and thus an efficient option to shed pounds. Weight gaining dietary supplements assist in increasing body weights, which entails a rise in muscle mass and fats deposits. In vertebrates, GH acts immediately by receptors on the muscle sarcolemma and not directly by initiating the manufacturing and launch of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) within the liver and peripheral tissues ( Wood et al., 2005 ). The IGF system includes IGF-I, IGF-II, several receptors and six binding proteins (IGFBPs) and is without doubt one of the central pathways regulating protein synthesis in skeletal muscle ( Fig.
bestes testosteron
grandezza del pene
arginin gĂĽnstig
pene lungo 10 cm

Read on to get more data on muscle constructing. MRM Gainer with Probiotics is a natural, gluten-free supplement. Many of the males are quite crazy to achieve weight and muscle mass. Optimum diet weight gainer will ship your energy which you'll count throughout restoration. High in muscle constructing amino acids, weight gainer shakes can maximise protein synthesis alongside offering the necessary energy, which in flip will result in a quicker recovery of damaged down muscle tissue post workout or a extra environment friendly building new muscle tissue within the restoration part. Gives optimum power to the body because of the balanced mix of high quality proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nutritional vitamins and minerals. Tufts Well being Plan members can sign up for the SPRINT for Well being program for $34.50 for a 6 month subscription (50% off the common subscription rate). In contrast to weight and muscle gainers, protein powders comprise solely a significant quantity of protein, remoted from numerous sources including whey, casein, egg or soy. The mission of MuscleTech mass Tech is to develop the most scientifically advanced and effective supplements that will help you build muscle and power while you shed pounds. Growth of muscle tissue plays a primary role in improving the physique weight of individual. If there's a preexisting deficiency of muscle mass before trauma, the acute loss of muscle mass and performance could push an individual over a threshold that makes recovery of normal function unlikely to ever occur. So if a lady wants less than 1200 energy per day her body perceives that it is not getting enough vitality every day with a purpose to survive. Protein powders are used simply to refill your protein wants and that is pretty much it. Yes, that may provide help to maintain or develop your muscle mass, however it is not going to assist you develop as a lot as a mass gainer would. Physique constructing should not be mistaken for weight lifting. In case you are already unbalanced, it's time to start working on your underdeveloped muscle mass. They'll additionally assist anybody who's underweight and struggling to get the nutrition they need from their regular eating regimen. The plan, which has been downloaded greater than 4 million occasions, is designed to aid you drop extra pounds safely - and keep it off. It incorporates 74 grams of carbohydrates and 15 grams proteins. An experiment by the University of Missouri involving 20 overweight females between the ages of 18 and 20 proved that a high protein breakfast led to decreased cravings they usually also snacked less on unhealthy meals.
gélule de testosterone
vendita extension capelli veri ricci
trattamento naturale per muscoli
aumentare dimensioni peni

But there are weight gainers that may be taken earlier than bedtime. These dietary supplements were created to really aid you placed on extra weight. Athletes who're already consuming a whole food, nutrient dense weight-reduction plan want to start their weight loss journey with portion management. Each serving has seven-hundred energy which are made from just 46g of protein, 90g of carbs and 17g of fats. If studies on whey protein powders and carbohydrate recovery supplements showcase a large array of help, then the both of them as one supplement should internet the identical benefits. With protein being essentially the most essential nutrient in muscle building, the bee pollen muscle constructing complement accommodates twice the amount of muscle constructing protein present in beef. You'll be able to lose as much as 5 per cent of your weight in below 60 days. This controversial weight-reduction plan plan was ideally created for the staff of Basic Motors, thus the identify GM weight-reduction plan. It does irrespective of whether you are a lady or a person, sometimes all of us need to lose some weight. Be sure to read until for the very finish where we choose our best weight gainer for skinny guys. As with carbs, some people assume that the way in which to drop some pounds is to chop out each scrap of fats of their weight-reduction plan. Watching big ripped guys take a weight achieve supplement or use a piece of kit is one other tactic used to attract you in. We're not saying that every one companies that use these consideration getter's do not have a quality product, we're saying that you should make clever choices regarding this stuff based mostly on actual info and never the flashy stuff that drew you in. For muscle progress, a person needs to eat more than the recommended every day quantity of dietary protein. It's common for individuals to experience some modifications in their body after happening the tablet, like momentary weight acquire However for those who notice any uncomfortable symptoms or if the pill is making you sick, it's a good suggestion to talk to your doctor or healthcare provider to see about another choice. To shed weight, it helps to take care of a day by day calorie deficit. If you're critical about precisely measuring your muscle gain and assessing your health, go get a physique composition evaluation. This one is more apparent since your physique is starved for nutrients and calories after burning them off throughout your exercise. This will result in weight loss — unless you compensate by eating an excessive amount of meals during allowed consuming durations.
prendre du poid en 2 mois
dieta disintossicante kousmine

As a substitute of consuming whole-fat yoghurt, for example, we eat low- or no-fat versions which are packed with sugar to make up for the loss of style. The energy and protein content found in this mass gainer is probably going the ideal method to construct your beneficial properties. Chicken breast is a prime entry for a protein-wealthy diet It is about ninety % protein, providing 20 grams of protein and only one gram of fats per three-ounce serving. Many scientists agree that a daily consumption of 0.6-zero.9 grams per pound (1.four-2.0 grams per kg) of physique weight per day is acceptable to help muscle growth in active adults ( 6 ). Crowth hormone will increase muscle mass and strength but does not rejuvenate myofibrillar protein synthesis in wholesome topics over 60 years old. Building muscle tissues may be a gradual course of, but the dedication to maintaining a healthy lifestyle will show over time. The mass gainer from is super inexpensive and incorporates an uncommon type of patented probiotic micro organism which will help with train recovery. This lack of muscle mass is known as sarcopenia. But, compared with other weight gainers, this product is sort of costly. When you're building your muscle mass, even after you obtain the specified result, please do not forget to maintain taking the supplements. Most people are pleased with how they give the impression of being by training for power. Aside from that, the whole lot will do. Nonetheless, remember the fact that you can't eat greens or another food and bear in mind that doctors suggest ingesting at the least eight glasses of water on this present day. Mass Gainers are a highly handy approach of adding extra calories to your eating regimen. UK drug regulator the Medicines and Healthcare merchandise Regulatory Company (MHRA) has warned folks to be wary of shopping for unlawful sports activities dietary supplements, as they might comprise harmful ingredients that could cause kidney failure, seizures and coronary heart issues. True Mass is called an ultra-premium weight gainer, which is good for supporting muscle recovery and growth. However by combing these dietary supplements collectively (often known as stacking) one can see related features in about half the time. This article will explain why most constructing muscle pills are rip-off products. That is the first cause exercise often fails to fulfill people's expectations for weight loss. Three out of the five meals ought to include loads of carbohydrates, fat and proteins. Use a mass gainer as a meal substitute.
aumentare massa muscolare braccia a casa
omega 3 testosterona
deseo de matar
16 votes

//4 Feb 04, 2020 05:59 AM | posted by: OlegNicsexcisuspetimigma
10 votes

//3 Jan 29, 2020 01:53 PM | posted by: OlegNicsexcisuspetimigma
20 votes

//2 Jan 23, 2020 10:05 PM | posted by: OlegNicsexcisuspetimigma
17 votes

//1 Jan 12, 2020 11:51 PM | posted by: ArinaIcedOwew
Здравствуйте, хочу спросить кто как и где отдыхает? Планируем с мужем и детьми отдохнуть и нагуглили на турсайте рекомендации для туристов. Вобщем-то предпочитаем слетать к морю в Европу например во Францию, Хорватию либо в Черногорию. Посоветуйте где сейчас лучше отдохнуть?

Add your comment:

antispam code